replSetInitiate — MongoDB Manual

The Challenges of Designing a Modern Skill, Part 3

Okay, Wendy’s or Walgreens or whoever, I don’t care who you are, you’re listening to the rest.

Introduction to Part 3

Welcome back one last time to “The Challenges of Designing a Modern Skill,” a series where we discuss all aspects of skill design and development. In Part 1, we talked about OSRS’s history with skills, and started the lengthy conversation on Skill Design Philosophy, including the concepts of Core, Expansion, and Integration. This latter topic consumed the entirety of Part 2 as well, which covered Rewards and Motivations, Progression, Buyables, as well as Unconstructive Arguments.
Which brings us to today, the final part of our discussion. In this Part 3, we’ll finish up Section 3 – Skill Design Philosophy, then move on to chat about the design and blog process. One last time, this discussion was intended to be a single post, but its length outgrew the post character limit twice. Therefore, it may be important to look at the previous two parts for clarity and context with certain terms. The final product, in its purest, aesthetic, and unbroken form, can be found here.

3-C – Skill Design Philosophy, Continued

3-12 - Balancing

What follows from the discussion about XP and costs, of course, is balancing: the bane of every developer. A company like Riot knows better than anyone that having too many factors to account for makes good balance impossible. Balancing new ideas appropriately is extremely challenging and requires a great respect for current content as discussed in Section 3-5 – Integration. Thankfully, in OSRS we only have three major balancing factors: Profit, XP Rate, and Intensity, and two minor factors: Risk and Leniency. These metrics must amount to some sense of balance (besides Leniency, which as we’ll see is the definition of anti-balance) in order for a piece of content to feel like it’s not breaking the system or rendering all your previous efforts meaningless. It’s also worthy to note that there is usually a skill-specific limit to the numerical values of these metrics. For example, Runecrafting will never receive a training method that grants 200k xp/hr, while for Construction that’s easily on the lower end of the scale.
A basic model works better than words to describe these factors, and therefore, being the phenomenal artist that I am, I have constructed one, which I’ve dubbed “The Guthix Scale.” But I’ll be cruel and use words anyway.
  • Profit: how much you gain from a task, or how much you lose. Gain or loss can include resources, cosmetics, specialized currencies, good old gold pieces, or anything on that line.
  • XP Rate: how fast you gain XP.
  • Intensity: how much effort (click intensity), attention (reaction intensity), and thought (planning intensity) you need to put into the activity to perform it well.
  • Risk: how likely is the loss of your revenue and/or resource investment into the activity. Note that one must be careful with risk, as players are very good at abusing systems intended to encourage higher risk levels to minimize how much they’re actually risking.
  • Leniency: a measure for how imbalanced a piece of content can be before the public and/or Jagex nerfs it. Leniency serves as a simple modulator to help comprehend when the model breaks or bends in unnatural ways, and is usually determined by how enjoyable and abusable an activity is, such that players don’t want to cause an outrage over it. For example, Slayer has a high level of Leniency; people don’t mind that some Slayer tasks grant amazing XP Rates, great Profits, have middling Intensity, and low Risk. On the other hand, Runecrafting has low levels of Leniency; despite low Risk, many Runecrafting activities demand high Intensity for poor XP Rates and middling Profits.
In the end, don’t worry about applying specific numbers during the conceptual phase of your skill design. However, when describing an activity to your reader, it’s always useful if you give approximations, such as “high intensity” or “low risk,” so that they get an idea of the activity’s design goals as well as to guide the actual development of that activity. Don’t comment on the activity’s Leniency though, as that would be pretty pretentious and isn’t for you to determine anyway.

3-13 - Skill Bloat

What do the arts of weaving, tanning, sowing, spinning, pottery, glassmaking, jewellery, engraving, carving, chiselling, carpentry, and even painting have in common? In real life, there’s only so much crossover between these arts, but in Runescape they’re all simply Crafting.
The distinction between what deserves to be its own skill or instead tagged along to a current skill is often arbitrary; this is the great challenge of skill bloat. The fundamental question for many skill concepts is: does this skill have enough depth to stand on its own? The developers of 2006 felt that there was sufficient depth in Construction to make it something separate from Crafting, even if the latter could have covered the former. While there’s often no clean cut between these skills (why does making birdhouses use Crafting instead of Construction?), it is easy to see that Construction has found its own solid niche that would’ve been much too big to act as yet another Expansion of Crafting.
On the other hand, a skill with extremely limited scope and value perhaps should be thrown under the umbrella of a larger skill. Take Firemaking: it’s often asked why it deserves to be its own skill given how limited its uses are. This is one of those ideas that probably should have just been thrown under Crafting or even Woodcutting. But again, the developers who made early Runescape did not battle with the same ideas as the modern player; they simply felt like Firemaking was a good idea for a skill. Similarly, the number of topics that the Magic skill covers is so often broken down in other games, like Morrowind’s separation between Illusion, Conjuration, Alteration, Destruction, Mysticism, Restoration, Enchant, Alchemy (closer to Herblore), and Unarmored (closer to Strength and Defense). Why does Runescape not break Magic into more skills? The answer is simple: Magic was created with a much more limited scope in Runescape, and there has not been enough content in any specific magical category to justify another skill being born. But perhaps your skill concept seeks to address this; maybe your Enchantment skill takes the enchanting aspects of Magic away, expands the idea to include current imbues and newer content, and fully fleshes the idea out such that the Magic skill alone cannot contain it. Somewhat ironically, Magic used to be separated into Good and Evil Magic skills in Runescape Classic, but that is another topic.
So instead of arguments about what could be thrown under another skill’s umbrella, perhaps we should be asking: is there enough substance to this skill concept for it to stand on its own, outside of its current skill categorization? Of course, this leads to a whole other debate about how much content is enough for a skill idea to deserve individuality, but that would get too deep into specifics and is outside the scope of this discussion.

3-14 - Skill Endgame

Runescape has always been a sandbox MMO, but the original Runescape experience was built more or less with a specific endgame in mind: killing players and monsters. Take the Runescape Classic of 2001: you had all your regular combat skills, but even every other skill had an endgame whose goal was helping combat out. Fishing, Firemaking, and Cooking would provide necessary healing. Smithing and Crafting, along with their associated Gathering skill partners, served to gear you up. Combat was the simple endgame and most mechanics existed to serve that end.
However, since those first days, the changing endgame goals of players have promoted a vast expansion of the endgame goals of new content. For example, hitting a 99 in any non-combat skill is an endgame goal in itself for many players, completely separate from that skill’s combat relationship (if any). These goals have increased to aspects like cosmetic collections, pets, maxed stats, all quests completed, all diaries completed, all music tracks unlocked, a wealthy bank, the collection log, boss killcounts, and more. Whereas skills used to have a distinct part of a system that ultimately served combat, we now have a vast variety of endgame goals that a skill can be directed towards. You can even see a growth in this perspective as new skills were released up to 2007: Thieving mainly nets you valuable (or once valuable) items which have extremely flexible uses, and Construction has a strong emphasis on cosmetics for your POH.
So when designing your new skill, contemplate what the endgame of your skill looks like. For example, if you are proposing a Gathering skill, what is the Production skill tie-in, and what is the endgame goal of that Production skill? Maybe your new skill Spelunking has an endgame in gathering rare collectibles that can be shown off in your POH. Maybe your new skill Necromancy functions like a Support skill, giving you followers that help speed along resource gathering, and letting you move faster to the endgame goal of the respective Production skill. Whatever it is, a proper, clear, and unified view of an endgame goal helps a skill feel like it serves a distinct and valuable purpose. Note that this could mean that you require multiple skills to be released simultaneously for each to feed into each other and form an appropriate endgame. In that case, go for it – don’t make it a repeat of RS3’s Divination, a Gathering skill left hanging without the appropriate Production skill partner of Invention for over 2 years.
A good example of a skill with a direct endgame is… most of them. Combat is a well-accepted endgame, and traditionally, most skills are intended to lend a hand in combat whether by supplies or gear. A skill with a poor endgame would be Hunter: Hunter is so scattered in its ultimate endgame goals, trying to touch on small aspects of everything like combat gear, weight reduction, production, niche skilling tools, and food. There’s a very poor sense of identity to Hunter’s endgame, and it doesn’t help that very few of these rewards are actually viable or interesting in the current day. Similarly, while Slayer has a strong endgame goal it is terrible in its methodology, overshadowing other Production skills in their explicit purpose. A better design for Slayer’s endgame would have been to treat it as a secondary Gathering skill, to work almost like a catalyst for other Gathering-Production skill relationships. In this mindset, Slayer is where you gather valuable monster drops, combine it with traditional Gathering resources like ores from Mining, then use a Production skill like Smithing to meld them into the powerful gear that is present today. This would have kept other Gathering and Production skills at the forefront of their specialities, in contrast to today’s situation where Slayer will give fully assembled gear that’s better than anything you could receive from the appropriate skills (barring a few items that need a Production skill to piece together).

3-15 - Alternate Goals

From a game design perspective, skills are so far reaching that it can be tempting to use them to shift major game mechanics to a more favourable position. Construction is an example of this idea in action: Construction was very intentionally designed to be a massive gold sink to help a hyperinflating economy. Everything about it takes gold out of the game, whether through using a sawmill, buying expensive supplies from stores, adding rooms, or a shameless piece of furniture costing 100m that is skinned as, well, 100m on a shameless piece of furniture.
If you’re clever about it, skills are a legitimately good opportunity for such change. Sure, the gold sink is definitely a controversial feature of Construction, but for the most part it’s organic and makes sense; fancy houses and fancy cosmetics are justifiably expensive. It is notable that the controversy over Construction’s gold sink mechanism is probably levied more against the cost of training, rather than the cost of all its wonderful aesthetics. Perhaps that should have been better accounted for in its design phase, but now it is quite set in stone.
To emphasize that previous point: making large scale changes to the game through a new skill can work, but it must feel organic and secondary to the skill’s main purpose. Some people really disliked Warding because they felt it tried too hard to fix real, underlying game issues with mechanics that didn’t thematically fit or were overshadowing the skill’s Core. While this may or may not be true, if your new skill can improve the game’s integrity without sacrificing its own identity, you could avoid this argument entirely. If your skill Regency has a Core of managing global politics, but also happens to serve as a resource sink to help your failing citizens, then you’ve created a strong Core design while simultaneously improving the profitability of Gathering skills.

3-16 - The Combat No-Touch Rule

So, let’s take a moment to examine the great benefits and rationale of RS2’s Evolution of Combat:
This space has been reserved for unintelligible squabbling.
With that over, it’s obvious that the OSRS playerbase is not a big fan of making major changes to the combat system. If there’s anything that defines the OSRS experience, it has to be the janky and abusable combat system that we love. So, in the past 7 years of OSRS, how many times have you heard someone pitch a new combat skill? Practically no one ever has; a new combat skill, no matter how miniscule, would feel obtrusive to most players, and likely would not even receive 25% of votes in a poll. This goes right back to Section 3-5 – Integration, and the importance of preserving the fundamentals of OSRS’s design.
I know that my intention with this discussion was to be as definitive about skill design as possible, and in that spirit I should be delving into the design philosophy specifically behind combat skills, but I simply don’t see the benefit of me trying, and the conversation really doesn’t interest me that much. It goes without saying that as expansive as this discussion is, it does not cover every facet of skill design, which is a limitation both of my capabilities and desire to do so.

3-17 - Aesthetics

I don’t do aesthetics well. I like them, I want them, but I do not understand them; there are others much better equipped to discuss this topic than I. Nonetheless, here we go.
Since the dawn of OSRS, debates over art style and aesthetics have raged across Gielinor. After all, the OSRS Team is filled with modern day artists while OSRS is an ancient game. What were they supposed to do? Keep making dated graphics? Make content with a modernized and easily digestible style? Something in-between?
While many players shouted for more dated graphics, they were approached by an interesting predicament: which dated graphics did they want? We had a great selection present right from the start of OSRS: 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007. People hungry for nostalgia chose the era that they grew up in, leading to frequent requests for older models like the dragon or imp, most of which were denied by Jagex (except the old Mining rock models). But which era was OSRS supposed to follow?
Jagex elected to carve their own path, but not without heavy criticism especially closer to OSRS’s conception. However, they adapted to player requests and have since gone back and fixed many of the blatant early offenders (like the Kingdom of Kourend) and adopted a more consistent flavour, one that generally respects the art style of 2007. Even though it doesn’t always hit the mark, one has to appreciate the OSRS artists for making their best attempt and listening to feedback, and here’s to hoping that their art style examination mentioned in June 2020’s Gazette bears fruit.
But what exactly is the old school art style? There are simple systems by which most players judge it in OSRS, usually by asking questions like, “Would you believe if this existed in 2007?” More informed artists will start pointing out distinct features that permeated most content from back in the day, such as low quality textures, low poly models, low FPS animations, a “low fantasy” or grounded profile that appeals somewhat to realism, reducing cartoonish exaggerations, and keeping within the lore. Compiled with this, music and sound design help that art style come to life; it can be very hard on immersion when these don’t fit. An AGS would sound jarring if its special attack sounded like a weak dagger stab, and having to endure Country Jig while roaming Hosidius suddenly sweeps you off into a different universe.
But coming back to skill design, the art, models, and sound design tend to be some of the last features, mostly because the design phase doesn’t demand such a complete picture of a skill. However, simple concept art and models can vastly improve how a skill concept is communicated and comfort players who are concerned about maintaining that “old school feel.” This will be touched on again later in this discussion under Section 5-2 – Presentation and Beta Testing.

3-18 - Afterword

Now we’ve set down the modern standards for a new skill, but the statements that started this section bear repeating: the formula we’ve established does not automatically make a good or interesting skill, as hard as we might have tried. Once again, harken back to the First Great Irony: that we are trying to inject the modern interpretation of what defines a skill upon a game that was not necessarily built to contain it. Therefore, one could just as easily deny each of the components described above, as popular or unpopular as the act might be, and their opinion could be equally valid and all this effort meaningless. Don’t take these guidelines with such stringency as to disregard all other views.

5-0 - The OSRS Team and the Design Process

If you’ve followed me all the way here, you’re likely A) exhausted and fed up of any conversation concerning new skills, or B) excited, because you’ve just struck an incredible skill idea (or perhaps one that’s always hung around your head) that happens to tick off all the above checkboxes. But unfortunately for you B types, it’s about to get pretty grim, because we’re going to go through every aspect of skill design that’s exterior to the game itself. We’ll be touching on larger topics like democracy, presentation, player mindsets, effort, and resource consumption. It’ll induce a fantastic bout of depression, so don’t get left behind.

5-1 - Designing a Skill

Thus far, Jagex has offered three potential skills to OSRS, each of which has been denied. This gives us the advantage of understanding how the skill design process works behind the scenes and lets us examine some of the issues Jagex has faced with presenting a skill to the players.
The first problem is the “one strike and you’re out” phenomenon. Simply put, players don’t like applying much effort into reading and learning. They’ll look at a developer blog highlighting a new skill idea, and if you’re lucky they’ll even read the whole thing, but how about the second developer blog? The third? Fourth? Even I find it hard to get that far. In general, people don’t like long detail-heavy essays or blogs, which is why I can invoke the ancient proverb “Ban Emily” into this post and it’ll go (almost) completely unnoticed. No matter how many improvements you make between developer blogs, you will quickly lose players with each new iteration. Similarly, developer blogs don’t have the time to talk about skill design philosophy or meta-analyse their ideas – players would get lost far too fast. This is the Second Great Irony of skill design: the more iterations you have of a lengthy idea, the less players will keep up with you.
This was particularly prominent with Warding: Battle Wards were offered in an early developer blog but were quickly cut when Jagex realized how bad the idea was. Yet people would still cite Battle Wards as the reason they voted against Warding, despite the idea having been dropped several blogs before. Similarly, people would often comment that they hated that Warding was being polled multiple times; it felt to them like Jagex was trying to brute-force it into the game. But Warding was only ever polled once, and only after the fourth developer blog - the confusion was drawn from how many times the skill was reiterated and from the length of the public design process. Sure, there are people for whom this runs the opposite way; they keep a close eye on updates and judge a piece of content on the merits of the latest iteration, but this is much less common. You could argue that one should simply disregard the ignorant people as blind comments don't contribute to the overall discussion, but you should remember that these players are also the ones voting for the respective piece of content. You could also suggest re-educating them, which is exactly what Jagex attempts with each developer blog, and still people won’t get the memo. And when it comes to the players themselves, can the playerbase really be relied on to re-educate itself?
Overall, the Second Great irony really hurts the development process and is practically an unavoidable issue. What’s the alternative? To remove the developer-player interface that leads to valuable reiterations, or does you simply have to get the skill perfect in the first developer blog?
It’s not an optimal idea, but it could help: have a small team of “delegates” – larger names that players can trust, or player influencers – come in to review a new, unannounced skill idea under NDA. If they like it, chances are that other players will too. If they don’t, reiterate or toss out the skill before it’s public. That way, you’ve had a board of experienced players who are willing to share their opinions to the public helping to determine the meat and potatoes of the skill before it is introduced to the casual eye. Now, a more polished and well-accepted product can be presented on the first run of selling a skill to the public, resulting in less reiterations being required, and demanding less effort from the average player to be fully informed over the skill’s final design.

5-2 - Presentation and Beta Testing

So you’ve got a great idea, but how are you going to sell it to the public? Looking at how the OSRS Team has handled it throughout the years, there’s a very obvious learning curve occurring. Artisan had almost nothing but text blogs being thrown to the players, Sailing started introducing some concept art and even a trailer with terrible audio recording, and Warding had concept art, in game models, gifs, and a much fancier trailer with in-game animations. A picture or video is worth a thousand words, and often the only words that players will take out of a developer blog.
You might say that presentation is everything, and that would be more true in OSRS than most games. Most activities in OSRS are extremely basic, involve minimal thought, and are incredibly grindy. Take Fishing: you click every 20 seconds on a fishing spot that is randomly placed along a section of water, get rid of your fish, then keep clicking those fishing spots. Boiling it down further, you click several arbitrary parts of your computer screen every 20 seconds. It’s hardly considered engaging, so why do some people enjoy it? Simply put: presentation. You’re given a peaceful riverside environment to chill in, you’re collecting a bunch of pixels shaped like fish, and a number tracking your xp keeps ticking up and telling you that it matters.
Now imagine coming to the players with a radical new skill idea: Mining. You describe that Mining is where you gather ores that will feed into Smithing and help create gear for players to use. The audience ponders momentarily, but they’re not quite sure it feels right and ask for a demonstration. You show them some gameplay, but your development resources were thin and instead of rocks, you put trees as placeholders. Instead of ores in your inventory, you put logs as placeholders. Instead of a pickaxe, your character is swinging a woodcutting axe as a placeholder. Sure, the mechanics might act like mining instead of woodcutting, but how well is the skill going to sell if you haven’t presented it correctly or respected it contextually?
Again, presentation is everything. Players need to be able to see the task they are to perform, see the tools they’ll use, and see the expected outcomes; otherwise, whatever you’re trying to sell will feel bland and unoriginal. And this leads to the next level of skill presentation that has yet to be employed: Beta Worlds.
Part of getting the feel of an activity is not just watching, it but acting it out as well - you’ll never understand the thrill of skydiving unless you’ve actually been skydiving. Beta Worlds are that chance for players to act out a concept without risking the real game’s health. A successful Beta can inspire confidence in players that the skill has a solid Core and interesting Expansions, while a failed Beta will make them glad that they got to try it and be fully informed before putting the skill to a poll (although that might be a little too optimistic for rage culture). Unfortunately, Betas are not without major disadvantages, the most prominent of which we shall investigate next.

5-3 - Development Effort

If you thought that the previous section on Skill Design Philosophy was lengthy and exhausting, imagine having to know all that information and then put it into practice. Mentally designing a skill in your head can be fun, but putting all that down on paper and making it actually work together, feel fully fleshed out, and following all the modern standards that players expect is extremely heavy work, especially when it’s not guaranteed to pay off in the polls like Quest or Slayer content. That’s not even taking into account the potentially immense cost of developing a new skill should it pass a poll.
Whenever people complain that Jagex is wasting their resources trying to make that specific skill work, Jagex has been very explicit about the costs to pull together a design blog being pretty minimal. Looking at the previous blogs, Jagex is probably telling the truth. It’s all just a bunch of words, a couple art sketches, and maybe a basic in-game model or gif. Not to downplay the time it takes to write well, design good models, or generate concept art, but it’s nothing like the scale of resources that some players make it out to be. Of course, if a Beta was attempted as suggested last section, this conversation would take a completely new turn, and the level of risk to invested resources would exponentially increase. But this conversation calls to mind an important question: how much effort and resources do skills require to feel complete?
Once upon a time, you could release a skill which was more or less unfinished. Take Slayer: it was released in 2005 with a pretty barebones structure. The fundamentals were all there, but the endgame was essentially a couple cool best-in-slot weapons and that was it. Since then, OSRS has updated the skill to include a huge Reward Shop system, feature 50% more monsters to slay, and to become an extremely competitive money-maker. Skills naturally undergo development over time, but it so often comes up during the designing of an OSRS skill that it "doesn't have enough to justify its existence." This was touched on deeply in Section 3-13 – Skill Bloat, but deserves reiterating here. While people recognize that skills continually evolve, the modern standard expects a new skill, upon release, to be fully preassembled before purchase. Whereas once you could get away with releasing just a skill's Core and working on Expansions down the line, that is no longer the case. But perhaps a skill might stand a better chance now than it did last year, given that the OSRS Team has doubled in number since that time.
However, judging from the skill design phases that have previously been attempted (as we’ve yet to see a skill development phase), the heaviest cost has been paid in developer mentality and motivational loss. When a developer is passionate about an idea, they spend their every waking hour pouring their mind into how that idea is going to function, especially while they’re not at work. And then they’re obligated to take player feedback and adapt their ideas, sometimes starting from scratch, particularly over something as controversial as a skill. Even if they have tough enough skin to take the heavy criticism that comes with skill design, having to write and rewrite repeatedly over the same idea to make it “perfect” is mentally exhausting. Eventually, their motivation drains as their labour bears little fruit with the audience, and they simply want to push it to the poll and be done with it. Even once all their cards are down, there’s still no guarantee that their efforts will be rewarded, even less so when it comes to skills.
With such a high mental cost with a low rate of success, you have to ask, “Was it worth it?” And that’s why new skill proposals are far and few between. A new skill used to be exciting for the development team in the actual days of 2007, as they had the developmental freedom to do whatever they wanted, but in the modern day that is not so much the case.

5-4 - The Problems of Democracy

Ever since the conceptualization of democracy in the real world, people have been very aware of its disadvantages. And while I don’t have the talent, knowledge, or time to discuss every one of these factors, there are a few that are very relevant when it comes to the OSRS Team and the polling process.
But first we should recognize the OSRS Team’s relationship with the players. More and more, the Team acts like a government to its citizens, the players, and although this situation was intentionally instated with OSRS’s release, it’s even more prominent now. The Team decides the type of content that gets to go into a poll, and the players get their input over whether that particular piece makes it in. Similarly, players make suggestions to the Team that, in many cases, the Team hadn’t thought of themselves. This synergy is phenomenal and almost unheard of among video games, but the polling system changes the mechanics of this relationship.
Polls were introduced to the burned and scarred population of players at OSRS’s release in 2013. Many of these players had just freshly come off RS2 after a series of disastrous updates or had quit long before from other controversies. The Squeal of Fortune, the Evolution of Combat, even the original Wilderness Removal had forced numerous players out and murdered their trust in Jagex. To try and get players to recommit to Runescape, Jagex offered OSRS a polling system by which the players would determine what went into the game, where the players got to hold all the cards. They also asked the players what threshold should be required for polled items to pass, and among the odd 50% or 55% being shouted out, the vast majority of players wanted 70%, 75%, 80%, or even 85%. There was a massive population in favour of a conservative game that would mostly remain untouched, and therefore kept pure from the corruption RS2 had previously endured.
Right from the start, players started noticing holes in this system. After all, the OSRS Team was still the sole decider of what would actually be polled in the first place. Long-requested changes took forever to be polled (if ever polled at all) if the OSRS Team didn’t want to deal with that particular problem or didn’t like that idea. Similarly, the Team essentially had desk jobs with a noose kept around their neck – they could perform almost nothing without the players, their slave masters, seeing, criticizing, and tearing out every inch of developmental or visionary freedom they had. Ever hear about the controversy of Erin the duck? Take a look at the wiki or do a search through the subreddit history. It’s pretty fantastic, and a good window into the minds of the early OSRS playerbase.
But as the years have gone on, the perspective of the players has shifted. There is now a much healthier and more trusting relationship between them and the Team, much more flexibility in what the players allow the Team to handle, and a much greater tolerance and even love of change.
But the challenges of democracy haven’t just fallen away. Everyone having the right to vote is a fundamental tenet of the democratic system, but unfortunately that also means that everyone has the right to vote. For OSRS, that means that every member, whether it’s their first day in game, their ten thousandth hour played, those who have no idea about what the poll’s about, those who haven’t read a single quest (the worst group), those who RWT and bot, those who scam and lure, and every professional armchair developer like myself get to vote. In short, no one will ever be perfectly informed on every aspect of the game, or at least know when to skip when they should. Similarly, people will almost never vote in favour of making their game harder, even at the cost of game integrity, or at least not enough people would vote in such a fashion to reach a 75% majority.
These issues are well recognized. The adoption of the controversial “integrity updates” was Jagex’s solution to these problems. In this way, Jagex has become even more like a government to the players. The average citizen of a democratic country cannot and will not make major decisions that favour everyone around themselves if it comes at a personal cost. Rather, that’s one of the major roles of a government: to make decisions for changes for the common good that an individual can’t or won’t make on their own. No one’s going to willingly hand over cash to help repave a road on the opposite side of the city – that’s why taxes are a necessary evil. It’s easy to see that the players don’t always know what’s best for their game and sometimes need to rely on that parent to decide for them, even if it results in some personal loss.
But players still generally like the polls, and Jagex still appears to respect them for the most part. Being the government of the game, Jagex could very well choose to ignore them, but would risk the loss of their citizens to other lands. And there are some very strong reasons to keep them: the players still like having at least one hand on the wheel when it comes to new content or ideas. Also, it acts as a nice veto card should Jagex try to push RS3’s abusive tactics on OSRS and therefore prevent such potential damage.
But now we come to the topic of today: the introduction of a new skill. Essentially, a new skill must pass a poll in order to enter the game. While it’s easy to say, “If a skill idea is good enough, it’ll pass the threshold,” that’s not entirely true. The only skill that could really pass the 75% mark is not necessarily a well-designed skill, but rather a crowd-pleasing skill. While the two aren’t mutually exclusive, the latter is far easier to make than the former. Take Dungeoneering: if you were to poll it today as an exact replica of RS2’s version, it would likely be the highest scoring skill yet, perhaps even passing, despite every criticism that’s been previously emphasized describing why it has no respect for the current definition of “skill.” Furthermore, a crowd-pleasing skill can easily fall prey to deindividualization of vision and result in a bland “studio skill” (in the same vein as a “studio film”), one that feels manufactured by a board of soulless machines rather than a director’s unique creation. This draws straight back to the afore-mentioned issues with democracy: that people A) don’t always understand what they’re voting for or against, and B) people will never vote for something that makes their game tougher or results in no benefit to oneself. Again, these were not issues in the old days of RS2, but are the problems we face with our modern standards and decision making systems.
The reality that must be faced is that the polling system is not an engine of creation nor is it a means of constructive feedback – it’s a system of judgement, binary and oversimplified in its methodology. It’s easy to interact with and requires no more than 10 seconds of a player’s time, a mere mindless moment, to decide the fate of an idea made by an individual or team, regardless of their deep or shallow knowledge of game mechanics, strong or weak vision of design philosophy, great or terrible understanding of the game’s history, and their awareness of blindness towards the modern community. It’s a system which disproportionately boils down the quality of discussion that is necessitated by a skill, which gives it the same significance as the question “Should we allow players to recolour the Rocky pet by feeding it berries?” with the only available answers being a dualistic “This idea is perfect and should be implemented exactly as outlined” or “This idea is terrible and should never be spoken of again.”
So what do you do? Let Jagex throw in whatever they want? Reduce the threshold, or reduce it just for skills? Make a poll that lists a bunch of skills and forces the players to choose one of them to enter the game? Simply poll the question, “Should we have a new skill?” then let Jagex decide what it is? Put more options on the scale of “yes” to “no” and weigh each appropriately? All these options sound distasteful because there are obvious weaknesses to each. But that is the Third Great Irony we face: an immense desire for a new skill, but no realistic means to ever get one.

6-0 - Conclusion

I can only imagine that if you’ve truly read everything up to this point, it’s taken you through quite the rollercoaster. We’ve walked through the history of OSRS skill attempts, unconstructive arguments, various aspects of modern skill design philosophy, and the OSRS Team and skill design process. When you take it all together, it’s easy to get overwhelmed by all the thought that needs to go into a modern skill and all the issues that might prevent its success. Complexity, naming conventions, categorizations, integration, rewards and motivations, bankstanding and buyables, the difficulties of skill bloat, balancing, and skill endgames, aesthetics, the design process, public presentation, development effort, democracy and polling - these are the challenges of designing and introducing modern skills. To have to cope with it all is draining and maybe even impossible, and therefore it begs the question: is trying to get a new skill even worth it?
Maybe.
Thanks for reading.
Tl;dr: Designing a modern skill requires acknowledging the vast history of Runescape, understanding why players make certain criticisms and what exactly they’re saying in terms of game mechanics, before finally developing solutions. Only then can you subject your ideas to a polling system that is built to oversimplify them.
submitted by ScreteMonge to 2007scape [link] [comments]

Getting very low performance with two GPUs (Ubuntu 20.04.1, Ryzen 1950X, 2 Vegas)

Hi all,
I made a post last night where I believed I was not using my GPUs at all. I now think that's not true, but I am still a little confused by what's happening.
I followed this guide and am running the code below. A few things stand out to me.
  1. I'm getting 6ms per step which is slower than I got without trying to use both GPUs, and about 120 times slower than what the guide got with a single RX-480.
  2. I can see that the GPUs are being used:

========================ROCm System Management Interface======================== ================================================================================ GPU Temp AvgPwr SCLK MCLK Fan Perf PwrCap VRAM% GPU% 0 57.0c 27.0W 852Mhz 945Mhz 14.9% auto 220.0W 95% 51% 1 50.0c 23.0W 852Mhz 167Mhz 13.73% auto 220.0W 99% 54% ================================================================================ ==============================End of ROCm SMI Log ============================== 

but the output lines "INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',)." I am not sure what to make of.

Code and complete output:
import tensorflow as tf; #2.3.1 from tensorflow.keras.datasets import mnist from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout from tensorflow.keras.optimizers import RMSprop from tensorflow.keras.utils import to_categorical strategy = tf.distribute.MirroredStrategy() print('Number of devices: {}'.format(strategy.num_replicas_in_sync)) with strategy.scope(): batch_size = 128 num_classes = 10 epochs = 10 # the data, split between train and test sets (x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data() x_train = x_train.reshape(60000, 784) x_test = x_test.reshape(10000, 784) x_train = x_train.astype('float32') x_test = x_test.astype('float32') x_train /= 255 x_test /= 255 print(x_train.shape[0], 'train samples') print(x_test.shape[0], 'test samples')# convert class vectors to binary class matrices y_train = to_categorical(y_train, num_classes) y_test = to_categorical(y_test, num_classes) model = Sequential() model.add(Dense(512, activation='relu', input_shape=(784,))) model.add(Dropout(0.2)) model.add(Dense(512, activation='relu')) model.add(Dropout(0.2)) model.add(Dense(num_classes, activation='softmax')) model.summary() 
Which yields:
INFO:tensorflow:Using MirroredStrategy with devices ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:0', '/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:GPU:1') Number of devices: 2 60000 train samples 10000 test samples Model: "sequential" _________________________________________________________________ Layer (type) Output Shape Param # ================================================================= dense (Dense) (None, 512) 401920 _________________________________________________________________ dropout (Dropout) (None, 512) 0 _________________________________________________________________ dense_1 (Dense) (None, 512) 262656 _________________________________________________________________ dropout_1 (Dropout) (None, 512) 0 _________________________________________________________________ dense_2 (Dense) (None, 10) 5130 ================================================================= Total params: 669,706 Trainable params: 669,706 Non-trainable params: 0 
And then:
model.compile(loss='categorical_crossentropy', optimizer=RMSprop(), metrics=['accuracy']) history = model.fit(x_train, y_train, batch_size=batch_size, epochs=epochs, verbose=1, validation_data=(x_test, y_test)) 
which yields:
Epoch 1/10 WARNING:tensorflow:From /uslocal/lib/python3.6/dist-packages/tensorflow/python/data/ops/multi_device_iterator_ops.py:601: get_next_as_optional (from tensorflow.python.data.ops.iterator_ops) is deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Instructions for updating: Use `tf.data.Iterator.get_next_as_optional()` instead. INFO:tensorflow:batch_all_reduce: 6 all-reduces with algorithm = nccl, num_packs = 1 INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:batch_all_reduce: 6 all-reduces with algorithm = nccl, num_packs = 1 INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). 464/469 [============================>.] - ETA: 0s - accuracy: 0.9248 - loss: 0.2446INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). INFO:tensorflow:Reduce to /job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0 then broadcast to ('/job:localhost/replica:0/task:0/device:CPU:0',). 469/469 [==============================] - 4s 9ms/step - accuracy: 0.9252 - loss: 0.2433 - val_accuracy: 0.9578 - val_loss: 0.1437 Epoch 2/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9689 - loss: 0.1028 - val_accuracy: 0.9724 - val_loss: 0.0916 Epoch 3/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9769 - loss: 0.0768 - val_accuracy: 0.9789 - val_loss: 0.0733 Epoch 4/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9823 - loss: 0.0611 - val_accuracy: 0.9805 - val_loss: 0.0676 Epoch 5/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9848 - loss: 0.0517 - val_accuracy: 0.9810 - val_loss: 0.0746 Epoch 6/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9871 - loss: 0.0437 - val_accuracy: 0.9814 - val_loss: 0.0759 Epoch 7/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9888 - loss: 0.0381 - val_accuracy: 0.9793 - val_loss: 0.0958 Epoch 8/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9901 - loss: 0.0344 - val_accuracy: 0.9827 - val_loss: 0.0833 Epoch 9/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9901 - loss: 0.0316 - val_accuracy: 0.9813 - val_loss: 0.0923 Epoch 10/10 469/469 [==============================] - 3s 6ms/step - accuracy: 0.9921 - loss: 0.0275 - val_accuracy: 0.9828 - val_loss: 0.0874 
I am completely new to all of this so any help would be enormously appreciated.
submitted by wentdot to tensorflow [link] [comments]

[N] Tensorflow 2.3.0 Released!

There is also a new experimental tf.data API for saving and loading datasets(https://www.tensorflow.org/versions/r2.3/api_docs/python/tf/data/experimental/save)
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/commit/4d58a67a9f19ab8d0cfbb2d8e461ebb73ce06db6
https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/issues/38483#issuecomment-640963109

https://github.com/tensorflow/tensorflow/releases/tag/v2.3.0

Release 2.3.0

Major Features and Improvements


In addition checkout the detailed guide for analyzing input pipeline performance with TF Profiler.

Breaking Changes


Known Caveats


Bug Fixes and Other Changes

TF Core:


tf.data:


tf.distribute:


tf.keras:


tf.lite:


Packaging Support


Profiler


TPU Enhancements


Tracing and Debugging


XLA Support


submitted by IIIBlueberry to MachineLearning [link] [comments]

How to see the dashboard? Getting 404

Hi all I just created a fresh kubernetes cluster and created a namespace called 'routing'
In here I created the latest traefik via the helm chart (2.2)
I can see the pod running fine.
When I run:
kubectl get svc --namespace routing
It shows the
NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE
traefik LoadBalancer cluster-ip-is-here external-ip-is-here 80:32252/TCP,443:30252/TCP 33m

I tried on my browser going to https:external-ip-is-here but it just shows 404
I tried with just http also.
Here is the file and command I am using for the dashboard:
kubectl apply -f dashboard.yml --namespace routing
and file:
# dashboard.yml
apiVersion: traefik.containo.us/v1alpha1
kind: IngressRoute
metadata:
name: dashboard
spec:
entryPoints:
- web
routes:
- match: Host(\traefik.localhost`) && (PathPrefix(`/dashboard`) || PathPrefix(`/api`))`
kind: Rule
services:
- name: [email protected]
kind: TraefikService

Here is the values file used:

# Default values for Traefik
image:
name: traefik
tag: 2.2.8
pullPolicy: IfNotPresent

#
# Configure the deployment
#
deployment:
enabled: true
# Number of pods of the deployment
replicas: 1
# Additional deployment annotations (e.g. for jaeger-operator sidecar injection)
annotations: {}
# Additional pod annotations (e.g. for mesh injection or prometheus scraping)
podAnnotations: {}
# Additional containers (e.g. for metric offloading sidecars)
additionalContainers: []
# Additional initContainers (e.g. for setting file permission as shown below)
initContainers: []
# The "volume-permissions" init container is required if you run into permission issues.
# Related issue: https://github.com/containous/traefik/issues/6972
# - name: volume-permissions
# image: busybox:1.31.1
# command: ["sh", "-c", "chmod -Rv 600 /data/*"]
# volumeMounts:
# - name: data
# mountPath: /data
# Custom pod DNS policy. Apply if \hostNetwork: true``
# dnsPolicy: ClusterFirstWithHostNet

# Pod disruption budget
podDisruptionBudget:
enabled: false
# maxUnavailable: 1
# minAvailable: 0

# Create an IngressRoute for the dashboard
ingressRoute:
dashboard:
enabled: true
# Additional ingressRoute annotations (e.g. for kubernetes.io/ingress.class)
annotations: {}
# Additional ingressRoute labels (e.g. for filtering IngressRoute by custom labels)
labels: {}

rollingUpdate:
maxUnavailable: 1
maxSurge: 1


#
# Configure providers
#
providers:
kubernetesCRD:
enabled: true
kubernetesIngress:
enabled: true
# IP used for Kubernetes Ingress endpoints
publishedService:
enabled: false
# Published Kubernetes Service to copy status from. Format: namespace/servicename
# By default this Traefik service
# pathOverride: ""

#
# Add volumes to the traefik pod.
# This can be used to mount a cert pair or a configmap that holds a config.toml file.
# After the volume has been mounted, add the configs into traefik by using the \additionalArguments` list below, eg:`
# additionalArguments:
# - "--providers.file.filename=/config/dynamic.toml"
volumes: []
# - name: public-cert
# mountPath: "/certs"
# type: secret
# - name: configs
# mountPath: "/config"
# type: configMap

# Logs
# https://docs.traefik.io/observability/logs/
logs:
# Traefik logs concern everything that happens to Traefik itself (startup, configuration, events, shutdown, and so on).
general:
# By default, the logs use a text format (common), but you can
# also ask for the json format in the format option
# format: json
# By default, the level is set to ERROR. Alternative logging levels are DEBUG, PANIC, FATAL, ERROR, WARN, and INFO.
level: ERROR
access:
# To enable access logs
enabled: false
# By default, logs are written using the Common Log Format (CLF).
# To write logs in JSON, use json in the format option.
# If the given format is unsupported, the default (CLF) is used instead.
# format: json
# To write the logs in an asynchronous fashion, specify a bufferingSize option.
# This option represents the number of log lines Traefik will keep in memory before writing
# them to the selected output. In some cases, this option can greatly help performances.
# bufferingSize: 100
# Filtering https://docs.traefik.io/observability/access-logs/#filtering
filters: {}
# statuscodes: "200,300-302"
# retryattempts: true
# minduration: 10ms
# Fields
# https://docs.traefik.io/observability/access-logs/#limiting-the-fieldsincluding-headers
fields:
general:
defaultmode: keep
names: {}
# Examples:
# ClientUsername: drop
headers:
defaultmode: drop
names: {}
# Examples:
# User-Agent: redact
# Authorization: drop
# Content-Type: keep

globalArguments:
- "--global.checknewversion"
- "--global.sendanonymoususage"

#
# Configure Traefik static configuration
# Additional arguments to be passed at Traefik's binary
# All available options available on https://docs.traefik.io/reference/static-configuration/cli/
## Use curly braces to pass values: \helm install --set="additionalArguments={--providers.kubernetesingress.ingressclass=traefik-internal,--log.level=DEBUG}"``
additionalArguments: []
# - "--providers.kubernetesingress.ingressclass=traefik-internal"
# - "--log.level=DEBUG"

# Environment variables to be passed to Traefik's binary
env: []
# - name: SOME_VAR
# value: some-var-value
# - name: SOME_VAR_FROM_CONFIG_MAP
# valueFrom:
# configMapRef:
# name: configmap-name
# key: config-key
# - name: SOME_SECRET
# valueFrom:
# secretKeyRef:
# name: secret-name
# key: secret-key

envFrom: []
# - configMapRef:
# name: config-map-name
# - secretRef:
# name: secret-name

# Configure ports
ports:
# The name of this one can't be changed as it is used for the readiness and
# liveness probes, but you can adjust its config to your liking
traefik:
port: 9000
# Use hostPort if set.
# hostPort: 9000
#
# Use hostIP if set. If not set, Kubernetes will default to 0.0.0.0, which
# means it's listening on all your interfaces and all your IPs. You may want
# to set this value if you need traefik to listen on specific interface
# only.
# hostIP: 192.168.100.10

# Defines whether the port is exposed if service.type is LoadBalancer or
# NodePort.
#
# You SHOULD NOT expose the traefik port on production deployments.
# If you want to access it from outside of your cluster,
# use \kubectl proxy` or create a secure ingress`
expose: false
# The exposed port for this service
exposedPort: 9000
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
web:
port: 8000
# hostPort: 8000
expose: true
exposedPort: 80
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
# Use nodeport if set. This is useful if you have configured Traefik in a
# LoadBalancer
# nodePort: 32080
# Port Redirections
# Added in 2.2, you can make permanent redirects via entrypoints.
# https://docs.traefik.io/routing/entrypoints/#redirection
# redirectTo: websecure
websecure:
port: 8443
# hostPort: 8443
expose: true
exposedPort: 443
# The port protocol (TCP/UDP)
protocol: TCP
# nodePort: 32443

# Options for the main traefik service, where the entrypoints traffic comes
# from.
service:
enabled: true
type: LoadBalancer
# Additional annotations (e.g. for cloud provider specific config)
annotations: {}
# Additional entries here will be added to the service spec. Cannot contains
# type, selector or ports entries.
spec: {}
# externalTrafficPolicy: Cluster
# loadBalancerIP: "1.2.3.4"
# clusterIP: "2.3.4.5"
loadBalancerSourceRanges: []
# - 192.168.0.1/32
# - 172.16.0.0/16
externalIPs: []
# - 1.2.3.4

## Create HorizontalPodAutoscaler object.
##
autoscaling:
enabled: false
# minReplicas: 1
# maxReplicas: 10
# metrics:
# - type: Resource
# resource:
# name: cpu
# targetAverageUtilization: 60
# - type: Resource
# resource:
# name: memory
# targetAverageUtilization: 60

# Enable persistence using Persistent Volume Claims
# ref: http://kubernetes.io/docs/user-guide/persistent-volumes/
# After the pvc has been mounted, add the configs into traefik by using the \additionalArguments` list below, eg:`
# additionalArguments:
# - "--certificatesresolvers.le.acme.storage=/data/acme.json"
# It will persist TLS certificates.
persistence:
enabled: false
# existingClaim: ""
accessMode: ReadWriteOnce
size: 128Mi
# storageClass: ""
path: /data
annotations: {}
# subPath: "" # only mount a subpath of the Volume into the pod

# If hostNetwork is true, runs traefik in the host network namespace
# To prevent unschedulabel pods due to port collisions, if hostNetwork=true
# and replicas>1, a pod anti-affinity is recommended and will be set if the
# affinity is left as default.
hostNetwork: false

# Whether Role Based Access Control objects like roles and rolebindings should be created
rbac:
enabled: true

# If set to false, installs ClusterRole and ClusterRoleBinding so Traefik can be used across namespaces.
# If set to true, installs namespace-specific Role and RoleBinding and requires provider configuration be set to that same namespace
namespaced: false

# The service account the pods will use to interact with the Kubernetes API
serviceAccount:
# If set, an existing service account is used
# If not set, a service account is created automatically using the fullname template
name: ""

# Additional serviceAccount annotations (e.g. for oidc authentication)
serviceAccountAnnotations: {}

resources: {}
# requests:
# cpu: "100m"
# memory: "50Mi"
# limits:
# cpu: "300m"
# memory: "150Mi"
affinity: {}
# # This example pod anti-affinity forces the scheduler to put traefik pods
# # on nodes where no other traefik pods are scheduled.
# # It should be used when hostNetwork: true to prevent port conflicts
# podAntiAffinity:
# requiredDuringSchedulingIgnoredDuringExecution:
# - labelSelector:
# matchExpressions:
# - key: app
# operator: In
# values:
# - {{ template "traefik.name" . }}
# topologyKey: failure-domain.beta.kubernetes.io/zone
nodeSelector: {}
tolerations: []

# Pods can have priority.
# Priority indicates the importance of a Pod relative to other Pods.
priorityClassName: ""

# Set the container security context
# To run the container with ports below 1024 this will need to be adjust to run as root
securityContext:
capabilities:
drop: [ALL]
readOnlyRootFilesystem: true
runAsGroup: 65532
runAsNonRoot: true
runAsUser: 65532

podSecurityContext:
fsGroup: 65532
submitted by bran-695 to Traefik [link] [comments]

[SHARE] Fulfilled Textbook Request Megathread #4

Download any of these for free at https://oppfiles.com/585933
DM me if you have any requests for anything not on the list.
If you want solution manuals/testbanks, you can also request them
Almost all the books are in their latest editions and some of them are available in multiple editions too.
Please subscribe the sub to find all the latest textbook releases.
Enjoy!
[Book] Art is an endangered species: a History of western art, Paleolithic Romanesque(self) 1 [BOOK] Above the Fray: The Red Cross and the Making of the Humanitarian NGO Sector by Shai Dromi(self) 2 [Book] Prehospital Emergency Care 11th Edition(self) 1 [Book] JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods 1st Edition by Edward Livingston, Roger Lewis(self) 3 [Book] Annual Editions: Anthropology 42/e, Elvio ANGELONI(self) 4 [Book] Donnelly, Seth 2019 The Lie of Global Prosperity: How Neoliberals Distort Data to Mask Poverty & Exploitation. Monthly Review Press.(self)NSFW 6 [Article] "What's Your Title?" - 'The Turn of the Screw.'(self) 3 [Article] Risk and survival of patients with head and neck cutaneous melanoma: national perspective. Al-Qurayshi Z et al(self) 1 [Book] [Taylor & Francis] Maritime Disputes and International Law: Disputed Waters and Seabed Resources in Asia and Europe by Constantinos Yiallourides(self) 2 [Book] Computer Network Security by Ali Sadiqui(self) 1 [Article] [Brill] Several articles from The Australian Year Book of International Law Volume 34(1)(self) 2 [Book]The Cham of Vietnam: History, Society and Art(self) 1 [Book] (Taylor&Francis) Human Biological Diversity by Daniel E. Brown(self) 4 [Article] [tandfonline] Memory for emotional words: The role of semantic relatedness, encoding task and affective valence(self) 5 [Article] Please help me to find this paper :( Shippers' Transport Efficiency: The Balance Between Required and Available Capacity(self) 6 [Article] [Heinonline] Trusts in Mixed Legal Systems: A Challenge to Comparative Trust Law - Michael Milo and Jan Smits(self) 4 [Article] [Heinonline] Non-Variation Clause - A Further Postscript(self) 4 [Article] [Heinonline] Force Majeure and Hardship Under The Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts - Joseph M Perillo(self) 4 [Article] [Heinonline] The Enforcement of an Oral Pactum de non Petendo Where a Contract Contains a Non-Variation Clause - Tukishi Manamela(self) 4 [Article] [Brill] Joint Development of Offshore Oil and Gas Resources in the South China Sea by John Abrahamson(self) 2 [BOOK] Med School Confidential: A Complete Guide to the Medical School Experience: By Students, for Students(self) 4 [Book] [Bloomsbury] The Hague Trusts Convention: Scope, Application and Preliminary Issues - Jonathan Harris(self) 4 [Article] The UNIDROIT Principles and the Arbitral Tribunals - Fabio Bortoli(self) 2 [Article] The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Pilot Study(self) 4 [Book] [Bloomsbury] The South China Sea Arbitration Toward an International Legal Order in the Oceans by Yoshifumi Tanaka(self) 1 [book] International Law Commission and Future of Int. Law(self) 4 [BOOK] Mapping Populism. Approaches and Methods - Amit Ron, Majia Nadesan(self) 4 [Article] At the Type Archive(self) 4 [BOOK] Challenging Austerity Radical Left and Social Movements in the South of Europe - Beltrán Roca, Emma Martín-Díaz, Ibán Díaz-Parra(self) 4 [BOOK] The Right in Latin America. Elite Power, Hegemony and the Struggle for the State - Barry Cannon(self) 1 [BOOK] Latin America’s Left Turns: Politics, Policies, and Trajectories of Change - Maxwell A. Cameron and Eric Hershberg, editors(self) 1 [Book] Science Lessons: What the Business of Biotech Taught Me about Management by Philip Bashe(self) 1 [Book] Studies in Islamic and later Indian art from the Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University Art Museums(self) 1 [Article] The Beneficial Effect of Physical Exercise on Inflammatory Makers in Older Individuals Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2020 Jun 6. 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setting parent / replica (read only) replication and the mysql DB on new servers

I'm following the instructions here: https://mariadb.com/kb/en/setting-up-replication/ and want to get some feedback on what I'm missing.
I have 2 brand spanking new server. No databases outside of the 'mysql' database. I have run 'mysql_secure_installation' on both. The only other commands I've run are creating the replication user and setting the parent on the replica and stop / start replica mode.
parent is set with:
#mariadb server id server_id=1 #binary logging options log_bin = /data/db/mysqllogs/mysql-bin # binary logging format - mixed recommended binlog_format = mixed 
replica has a different server_id and log_bin is disabled. I've tried with both copying the 'mysql' database and without. I've wiped the whole DB config multiple times. I'm at a loss as to why replication isn't "setting up". I'm using GTID mode.
CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='MYHOST', MASTER_USER='mariadb_replication', MASTER_PASSWORD='PASSWORD', MASTER_PORT=3306, MASTER_USE_GTID = slave_pos; 
mysql error on the parent states:
2020-07-06 23:56:48 24 [Warning] Aborted connection 24 to db: 'unconnected' user: 'mariadb_replication' host: 'ip-192-168-220-93.us-east-2.compute.internal' (A slave with the same server_uuid/server_id as this slave has...) 
mysql error on the replica states when just doing enable replication:
2020-07-06 23:56:15 10 [ERROR] Slave SQL: Error 'Duplicate entry 'localhost-mariadb.sys' for key 'PRIMARY'' on query. Default database: 'mysql'. Query: 'INSERT INTO global_priv SELECT * FROM tmp_user_sys WHERE NOT @had_sys_user;', Gtid 0-1-6, Internal MariaDB error code: 1062 2020-07-06 23:56:15 10 [Warning] Slave: Duplicate entry 'localhost-mariadb.sys' for key 'PRIMARY' Error_code: 1062 2020-07-06 23:56:15 10 [ERROR] Error running query, slave SQL thread aborted. Fix the problem, and restart the slave SQL thread with "SLAVE START". We stopped at log 'mysql-bin.000001' position 3324; GTID position '0-1-5' 
mysql error on the replica states when copying the DB:
020-07-06 23:56:48 13 [ERROR] Slave SQL: Error 'Table 'mysql.tmp_user_sys' doesn't exist' on query. Default database: 'mysql'. Query: 'INSERT INTO global_priv SELECT * FROM tmp_user_sys WHERE NOT @had_sys_user;', Gtid 0-1-6, Internal MariaDB error code: 1146 2020-07-06 23:56:48 13 [Warning] Slave: Table 'mysql.tmp_user_sys' doesn't exist Error_code: 1146 2020-07-06 23:56:48 13 [ERROR] Error running query, slave SQL thread aborted. Fix the problem, and restart the slave SQL thread with "SLAVE START". We stopped at log 'mysql-bin.000001' position 3324; GTID position '0-1-5' 2020-07-06 23:56:48 13 [Note] Slave SQL thread exiting, replication stopped in log 'mysql-bin.000001' at position 3324; GTID position '0-1-5' 

What am I missing? Are you supposed to start it with ignore issues so it works once? or skip the 'mysql' database? I'm just baffled that with a config that has all binary logs since a fresh install that this isn't working to roll "forward".
SOLVED: So, dug into how the GTID works. Apparently, if you don't set a GTID initially on the new replica server it starts from 0. So, you have to convert the master status to a GTID. You can do this by running on the master:
> show master status; > SELECT BINLOG_GTID_POS('file', POSNUM); 
where the file and POSNUM are the file and Position Number from the show master command.
On the replica you then run:
> SET GLOBAL gtid_slave_pos = 'GTIDNUM'; 
where the GTIDNUM is the output from the SELECT. This sets the position. You can then run your `CONNECT TO MASTER....` with the GTID mode and it will roll forward from the restore point.
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[JVerse] Rebirth Chapter 12, A Flash of Green

So to update you all on things, my hernia surgery went well and my intestines are back where they belong. Sadly I didn't have as much time to write as I would have liked, (pain meds will do that), but I managed to finally get chapter twelve done in time to give you all an extra dose of JVerse once you have finished our lord and savior's most recent chapter.

(Story is continued in the comments)
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Date Point: 3 months, 2 weeks, 5 days A.V.
Unnamed system
Planet 4 ring system
Requiem
Michael Kepler
"God damn I missed this," Michael said, flipping the Requiem around another asteroid, testing the limits of the inertial compensators.
They had gotten lucky and found the perfect system to test out the newly retrofitted Requiem. The system in question turned out to be a binary system with some rocky bodies and a truly gorgeous blue gas giant that sported a system of ice rings that were just perfect for running the old girl through her paces.
Michael gave the main thrusters all they could take, slipping through two asteroids seconds before they collided. There was a muffled cheer through the comms from the rest of the crew back onboard the Dawn. He had set up cameras all over the Requiem so his crew could watch. Right now only himself and Hephaestus were crazy enough to fly a ship built from scrap through one of the densest ring systems on record. Even Ralthin wasn't that crazy, having said that he'd rather shoot the rocks instead.
They dodged, dived, and weaved their way through the belt for another half an hour before Michael got a comms ping. He angled the ship "up" and rocketed out of the belt so he could answer without having to dodge rocks.
"What's up," Michael asked, angling the ship so he was cruising parallel to the rings.
Goralin's face showed up on the screen, "We just synced with Haven's network, and you've got a message from Gabby."
Before they had left Haven Michael had signed them up as Gabby's new security force. To keep in touch in case of an emergency Michael had purchased an FTL comms array and had set it up to sync with the local network on Haven every week. Of course, if there was an actual emergency he had spent a small fortune on a pair of quantum entangled arrays for instantaneous recall. The fact that Goralin's ears had a mischievous tilt meant that this wasn't an emergency. Meaning that it was probably the favor he had asked before they left.
"Alright, prep the hangar bay. I'm gonna test the emergency recall drive," Michael said, cutting the thrusters and letting the ship coast.
"Copy that Michael. Wait to jump until we give you the signal," Goralin said, closing the channel.
Michael switched over to the intercom, "Sorry Hephaestus, looks like we're gonna have to cut this short."
"It isss fine," Hephaestus said with the barest hint of a chuckle, "If the messsage isss from Gabby I can only think of one reassson. We are going hunting!"
"Cool your jets, we still haven't heard it yet," Michael said, running the ship through the pre-jump sequence, "All set to jump?"
One other little upgrade they did was to configure a jump drive onboard the Requiem so they could get back to the Dawn in a hurry. The only downside was that the hangar bay had to be depressurized so the sudden appearance of the Requiem didn't create a hull rupturing pressure wave.
"All sssyssstemsss are green," Hephaestus said back through the comms, "Ready for jump."
It was only a few more seconds until Michael got the comms ping signaling that the hangar bay was ready.
Michael's finger hovered over the button, "Jumping in three...two...one."
He pushed the button and the ship was inside the Dawn, perfectly centered in the hangar bay. The docking clamps engaged and the bay was pressurized in minutes. Michael ran through the shutdown sequence, unstrapped himself from the pilot seat and met Hephaestus in the airlock. They double-checked the atmospheric readout on the panel before opening the outer door. Even though Michael was wearing his armor and had no fear of stepping into hard vacuum, Hephaestus was basically naked, so it paid to be careful. They made their way up to the bridge, stopping by the mess to apologize for cutting the show short and so Michael could grab a quick snack. One downside of his new armor was that he burned a lot more calories than he ever did wearing his old suit. He walked the rest of the way up to the bridge with Hephaestus in tow.
When he opened the door to the bridge Goralin turned around in the copilot's seat, "You enjoy yourselves," he asked with a slightly mischievous tilt to his ears.
"Yeah!" Michael said enthusiastically, "and I gotta say, yinz missed a hell of a ride."
"I'll have to take your word on that one," Goralin said with a chitter, "Anyway, while we were waiting, I went through the files that were attached to the message and it looks like she sent us a good one."
"Oh," Michael asked, interested, "she send anything else?"
"Just a few video files," Goralin trailed off.
Michael looked around to see the rest of the bridge crew barely able to hold back their chittering.
So they were those kinds of videos…
Michael sighed, "Put the important one up on the main screen. I'll take a look at the rest later."
Goralin flicked his ears in amusement and brought up the message file.
Gabby appeared on the main screen, thankfully wearing her work outfit, with a cqcq cigarette in her hand, "Long time no see," she said, taking a hit and blowing the smoke off-screen, "I had my contacts do some digging and they found a good one. There's no bounty, sadly, but I don't think you'll have a problem with that. Everything you'll need should be in the files I sent along with some...other things I know you'll like," she winked at the camera, "Hoping to hear back from you soon."
"Did she send a location," Michael asked, turning toward Goralin.
"Already punched in," Goralin said with a pant-grin.
"Good man," Michael said with a gentle clap on Goralin's shoulder, "Prep the ship for warp, I'm gonna head to my quarters to uhh…review the other files she sent and get a reply together to send over during the next sync."
Michael left the bridge to sound of barely contained chittering from the crew and made his way back to his quarters. When he reached the mess heard raised voices coming from inside. So he stopped to eavesdrop just outside the door.
"For the last time Jilink," Guln said, "I have absolutely no interest in your insane delusions. No matter how...impressive you may find the humans in their mating practices!"
"Oh come now," Jilink said dismissively, "You seriously cannot believe that the way our species handles reproduction is good for our long term survival can you?"
"What other choice do we have," Guln asked, "we have long since passed the point of being biologically able to reproduce, but that is beside the point," he lowered his voice, "it was simply proposing the idea of reverting back to biological reproduction that made you one of the few Corti that had their banner status stripped all the way down to yellow."
"That was just because those in the Directorate are too narrow-minded to see past their own hubris," Jilink said angrily, "it was only when I started unlocking and splicing genes that had been previously bred out that I started to question their rhetoric. If you would just let me-"
"No! I will not hear of it. Mess with your own genetic code all you want, but I will not have you turning myself and Kilnq into genetic freaks," Guln said, moments before storming out of the mess. He ignored Michael and headed off toward the med bay.
Michael poked his head into the mess and saw Jilink sitting alone, forlornly picking at a plate of steamed mushrooms and cqcq.
She looked up as he walked over, "If you are going to play at eavesdropping you might want to consider that we can feel your every step through the deck plating," she said with a shrewd look.
"So what was your banner status," Michael asked bringing over a chair that could support the weight of himself and his armor. He sat down and took off his helmet, placing it on the table in front of him.
"No remorse and straight to the point I see," she let out a deep sigh, "Before I began...experimenting...on myself, I was a silver banner."
From what Michael knew about Corti social structure, Jilink had been next to royalty. To give all that up...
"Fuck," Michael said, recovering from his jaw practically denting the table, "Why the hell did you give that up?"
"To advance my species of course," she said, her eyes boring into Michael's, "we may be the most technologically advanced in the galaxy, but as a species we Corti have fallen behind tremendously. I may be too brazen in saying this, but we are on the brink."
"On the brink," Michael asked, "the brink of what?"
Jilink's expression hardened, "The brink of terminal decline, and unless something is done my species will fade into obscurity."
"And that something was playing with your own genetics," Michael asked, confused.
"Not playing," Jilink said, waving one finger back and forth, "Improving. As we are, the Corti are far from ideal. Intelligent and quick-witted yes, but we lack the physicality to endure as a species for much longer."
"And that has to do with what Guln said about the way yinz reproduce," Michael asked, even more confused, "you mean yinz don't have kids naturally?"
"As a matter of fact, we do not. Every Corti is grown in a birthing tank," Jilink said matter of factly, "there hasn't been a natural birth for millennia."
"Well that's all kinds of fucked up," Michael said, shaking his head, "and they kicked you out for wanting to go back to the way things are supposed to be?"
"Precisely. You see, reverting back to biological reproduction would necessitate drastic changes to our biology. It is also the reason why I am so fascinated with how other species reproduce. I have been able to get a wealth of medical data on the subject, but the one thing that most species lack is information on how to make the act more enjoyable. Your species, however," she pointed at Michael's chest, "seems to excel in that regard."
"I can see your point," Michael said with a chuckle.
"Needless to say there are some practices that simply watching recordings cannot fully explain. You do not mind answering some questions do you," Jilink asked excitedly.
Michael shrugged, "I got time. Ask away."
Jilink pulled a small tablet from her set of pouches and tapped in a few commands, "I'll start with something that has perplexed me for some time now. Tell me, what is the exact purpose of a bukkake?"
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Ten thousand kilometers astern of the Radiant Dawn
Whispering Breeze
Agent One Six Two
Something was wrong.
He had been trying to link to the infrared module that was hidden next to the engine cluster on that accursed human's ship for over [an hour] only to receive no response. He double and triple checked that his ship was aligned correctly and found not the barest hint of any discrepancy. This left two possibilities, either the module had malfunctioned, or it had been taken offline. Given the extremely stable nature of current solid-state electronics, the latter of the two options seemed the most probable.
He was now forced to consider alternative plans to get the information he needed. One option was to take over one of the human's crew, but the chances of finding one of them alone long enough for him to adjust to the new sensory input were astronomical at best. There was always the option of simply biodroning all the implanted crew, but with the proven combat capabilities of the human and his pet abomination, there was no guarantee of successfully taking over the ship. That left only one option that had any probability of success.
Once the human's ship was out of the system and had no hope of detecting him, One Six Two punched in the codes for the only jump beacon that the human had deployed.
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Date point: 4 months, 2 weeks, 5 days AV
Sol system
Earth
Allegheny National Park
Daniel Mackovich
After the Vancouver incident life had gone on pretty much the same as always. As much as he hated to admit it, Daniel wished the aliens had caused more damage. As it was now, people had already moved on. Of course, every news outlet on the planet had milked the story dry within a week, but since nobody other than the aliens had died the story that humanity was no longer alone in the universe had been replaced by the same old shit. Shootings, trouble in the Middle East, China violating human rights, the usual stuff.
Both he and David were sick of it. So they had planned a little something to get away. That little something happened to be a camping trip out in Allegheny National Park. Not the biggest excursion by a long shot, but it seemed a couple of days out in the woods was just what the doctor ordered.
The first night was just perfect. No rain or swarms of mosquitos, just hours of watching caveman TV with a good meal cooked over the fire to finish out the night. They had been watching the weather and had made sure that there wasn't the barest hint of rain, but it looked like the curse of his old Boy Scout troop had followed him. It had started raining shortly after lunch on the second day. Thanks to a few tricks he'd learned in said cursed Boy Scout troop, Daniel was able to get the fire going, even though all their wood was soaked, so they were at least able to cook their dinner under the tarp David had rigged up over the fire pit.
"Well, it wasn't what we were expecting," David said, looking out of the tent, "but I can think of worse ways to spend the evening."
"My old scout troop was called the Rain Makers after all," Daniel said with a chuckle, snuggling a little closer to David, "At least the company's better this time around."
They sat and watched for a while, listening to the gentle sound of the rain on their tent.
David turned around and rummaged around in his bag for a few moments before turning back and locking eyes with Daniel.
"Well...I was hoping for a better opportunity but," David trailed off.
Daniel looked down at what David was holding in his hand and his breath caught in his throat.
"Daniel, will you marry me?"
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Date point: 9 months, 1 week, 2 days AV
Far Reaches
Cimbrean
Radiant Dawn
Michael Kepler
They had made the trip out in astonishingly good time thanks to the black box drive on the Radiant Dawn. Fast as their ship was it had still taken them around six months to reach this little speck of nowhere. However, the extra time gave Michael the chance to work out some armor for his Gaoian crewmates. They had to stop and resupply before they could manufacture any of it though. It seemed that they had burned through most of their supplies for the nanofac with the Requiem's retrofit.
The armor they had worked out was much like Hephaestus' in the way that it relied heavily on lightweight composite plates instead of heavy alloys like Michael's. The plus side was that Hephaestus had worked out a composite that could take multiple hits from a heavy pulse cannon before failing. Not that the Gaoians would be taking much fire though, each one had a portable cloaking generator to make the best use of their natural talent for sneaking. There was one problem with the suits though, they had to be kept loose to accommodate the Gaoians' fur. Which meant that they would have to rely on shield harnesses for protection against the vacuum of space. Not the best prospect in Michael's mind, but they didn't seem to have the aversion to relying on forcefield tch like he did.
And since Michael wanted some semblance of a uniform for his new band of mercs, the chest plate and helmet had kept as much of the standard Mandalorian looks as possible. The helmet was kinda tricky, considering that the Gaoians had much longer noses than humans, as well as ears that came out of the top of their heads.
In the end, Gaoians had to deal with the minor discomfort of having their ears squished down, but it was worth it if they wanted to have their heads protected. As for the stereotypical "T" shaped visor, Michael settled on a shortened version, ending just above the Gaoians' snouts with a protrusion to cover their nose and mouth. It also had the benefit of allowing the Gaoians to personalize the lower portion, and once one of them had painted fangs on his, the rest had followed suit. Michael had to admit, it looked totally badass.
The extra time also gave them the chance to develop their arsenal. The standard pulse guns were ditched in favor of coilguns. Most of the Gaoians went with something like an AR-15. They were lightweight, with a variable power setting so they didn't over-penetrate their targets if they were inside a ship or station. The real treat was what the brownies came up with though. The crazy fuckers had amped up their coilguns to a heavy machine gun type thing that could send a withering hailstorm of slugs at whatever unfortunate thing that happened to be on the receiving end. However, it seemed that all of the Gaoians took a liking to Hephaestus' fusion claws and had added their own to finish out their already terrifying array of weapons.
They had spent three of the local days cloaked in a high polar orbit mapping the planet and trying to find the location of the palace that was supposed to be here. The only reason it took that long was that they were using passive scans to prevent the discovery of their ship. Since they were stuck in orbit Michael had left it up to the bridge crew to notify him when they found anything. To pass the time and get a better feel on things he had been going through the files on their target. After cross-referencing them with the data from the Twisted Suns it seemed that this particular fucknut had an affinity for ordering Rickytics and Vizkiticks among a smattering of a dozen other species.
It couldn't be...could it?
Michael dug deeper into the records until he found the right entry. Shit.
"Ship," Michael said as he got up from his desk and stretched, still marveling at just how flexible his new armor was.
He got a response ping.
"Where is Irk?"
"Irk is in hydroponics," the ship said through his room's intercom in a perfect replica of Cortana’s voice. Michael didn't know why, but using Cortana's voice for the ship just felt right.
Michael grabbed his helmet and locked it in place.
"Send him a message that I'm on my way. There's something I need to talk to him about."
Michael went to hydroponics and found Irk in his personal corner behind their crop of cqcq minding his bonsai garden. He had originally got the idea from watching Karate Kid of all things. When they had stopped at Haven Irk had purchased a bunch of seedlings from all over the galaxy. As it turned out most of them had the same reaction as Earth trees when they were root-bound inside a small pot. With a little help from some space magic in the form of time acceleration fields, he had more than a dozen perfectly healthy miniature trees. With careful management, Irk had produced some truly fantastical shapes. Hell, he even had one "pot" that was levitating with trees growing out of both the top and bottom.
When Michael walked over Irk turned around, "Ah, Michael. You have something you wanted to speak to me about?"
"Yeah," Michael said, taking off his helmet and setting it down on the table next to the levitating bonsai trees, "It's about our target."
Irk gave him a quizzical look, tilting his head slightly to the side.
Michael took a deep breath, "There was a bit of a mix up on the part of the Twisted Suns. Your lifemate and child were actually supposed to be shipped here."
"But...the Hunters," Irk trailed off.
"That's not all," Michael said, shaking his head, "I really don't have a good way to say this...but it looks like the scumbag we're after wanted you and your family specifically."
Irk slumped to the deck, lost for words.
"I did some digging into the data we got from the Twisted Suns," Michael said, bringing up the file and sending it to Irk's tablet.
It pinged and Irk pulled it out of its pouch with shaking hands. He hesitated for a moment before opening it. Delicately, he tapped the icon and read the file. Irk put the tablet back into its pouch and was silent for a few moments before he gathered his legs under himself and stood up to his full height.
He looked directly at Michael, "I have only one request."
"Name it," Michael said, locking eyes with Irk.
"Bring the bastard to me alive," Irk said with enough bile dripping off the borrowed human curse word to make Michael flinch.
No sooner had Irk walked out of hydroponics did Michael receive a notification from the bridge crew. He put his helmet back on and answered the comms.
"Yinz found something," he asked, exiting hydroponics and making his way up to the bridge.
"Yeah," Goralin said through the comms, "and you're gonna want to see this."
"On my way," Michael said, breaking into a run for the hundred-ish meters to the bridge.
He exploded into the bridge and skidded to a halt right next to Goralin. Michael was a little out of breath, but it wasn't too bad considering the weight of his armor. Practically living in the suit had its benefits sometimes.
Goralin eyed Michael with a hint of amusement "Excited?"
"Damn right," Michael said with a chuckle, "we've only been orbiting this dirtball for three days. What'd you find?"
"See for yourself," Goralin said with a pant-grin, bringing up what looked like a palace on the main screen.
Michael let out a long whistle, "Damn that had to cost a pretty penny."
What was on screen was possibly the most egregious display of wealth that Michael had ever seen, aside from his own ship of course. Camera tech was really something else out here, they had to be at least a hundred and fifty kilometers up, but the pictures were clear enough that Michael could see the contents of the gardens surrounding the enormous palace complex. He'd read the specs when he had the sensor suite overhauled, but the fact that their ground facing camera was in the hundred gigapixel range never quite hit home until he had actually used it.
"Cost a what," Goralin asked, tilting his head slightly.
"Oh, sorry," Michael said, a little embarrassed, "it's an expression for a fuckton of money."
Goralin chittered, "Well the palace isn't the only thing that cost a pretty penny. We found something else too."
The next thing that came up on the screen left Michael totally speechless. Not too far off the coast was a yacht so big it was practically a floating island. Hell, it even had football-field sized space in the middle that was containing a miniature forest.
"Well if they're anywhere, our target's probably on that yacht," Michael said, gesturing to the screen.
Goralin zoomed in on it, "It looks like there's a landing pad big enough to land the Requiem near the back."
"Well, it's our lucky day then," Michael said, turning back toward the door, "get an assault team ready. We're dropping in an hour."
"An assault team," Goralin asked, his ears going slightly back.
Michael stopped and turned back around, "Rich fucker like that's gotta be able to afford some really good security, and not the average Chennash mercs either."
"Right," Goralin said, "I know Ralthin's gonna be damn happy to finally get a good fight for once," he finished with a slight chitter.
The next hour flew by in a flurry of activity as the assault team got the message and scrambled to get into their armor. Thankfully they didn't need to load any cargo into the Requiem, and they already had all their extra weapons stored onboard. Michael made a stop by his quarters to grab his coilgun and its barrel attachments. On a whim, he dug out his antique revolver and strapped it to his hip. He had to stop and laugh at the absurdity of carrying a black powder revolver that was made in eighteen seventy-six, but something just felt right about bringing the old girl along.
He made it to the hangar bay just as everyone was getting situated. Hephaestus was already onboard the Requiem running through the preflight checks from his station near the quantum stacks so all Michael had to do was wait for the rest of the assault team to show up. When everyone was strapped in and had their gear stowed for the drop he stepped out to the open space in the middle of the Requiem's cargo area.
"Alright," Michael said, running his eyes over the seated Gaoians, "it's our first mission and from the looks of things, it's not gonna be an easy one. We're going in blind and this fucker's probably paranoid enough to have hired some decent security. They won't be like the pirate scum yinz are probably used to. Hell, I wouldn't be surprised if there's a company of Allebenellin mercs waiting for us."
Michael paused and let that sink in for a moment, "The main problem is that the yacht we're gonna be landing on is fucking huge. So the plan's pretty simple myself, Hephaestus, Ralthin, and the brownies are gonna raise hell so all the rest of yinz can use your cloaking fields to the best advantage. Sweeping the ship for any other hostiles while looking for our target."
That got some chittering out of them.
"As for our target," Michael said, starting to pace back and forth in front of the seated Gaoians, "he's a Robalin with some… strong opinions on other sentient life. Apparently, this guy acquired his fortune thanks to some kind of breakthrough in medical tech and bought the palace at an auction when the previous owner's trading company went under thanks to some very poor business deals and Hunter raids on their ships. Ever since, he's lived a comfortable life on Cimbrean buying slaves from the Twisted Suns for God knows what reason," Michael let out a long sigh, "And as much as I'd like to end this guy the second we find him, Irk wants him alive. It seems that this fucker is the one that got Irk's family captured by the Twisted Suns."
"An that's why we're not just gonna blast the boat," Yeg asked.
"Exactly," Michael said, pausing to congratulate him, "there also might be slaves still on board, so any we find get to come back with us. Any questions?"
"Yeah," one of the other brownies spoke up, "when are ya gonna quit talkin' so we can have some fun?"
Michael laughed, "Alright alright, I get it," he said, vaulting up the ramp to the cockpit, "hold on to your tails, it's gonna be a bumpy ride."
Michael entered the cockpit and closed the door behind him, and once he was in the pilot seat he opened the intercom, "We ready to go?"
"The ssship isss ready to depart Michael," Hephaestus said back eagerly.
Michael gave the signal to the hangar crew and waited while they depressurized the hangar bay and opened the outer door.
Michael opened a channel to the bridge, "Yinz keep an eye out while we're planetside, we might need to come back in a hurry."
"Just make sure you don't die down there," Goralin said with a slight chitter, "We'll be waiting for you."
"We'll make sure to come back in one piece," Michael said with a chuckle, quickly running through the preflight checks. Hephaestus had already done them so all he had to do was to glance at the display and be sure that all systems were green, "but if yinz are that worried, I'll broadcast the view from my helmet cam."
"You know," Goralin said, "I was gonna suggest the same thing. It'll make for good entertainment."
"You got that right," Michael said entering the command to release the docking clamps, "Undocking now," Michael said closing the channel and backing the ship out of the hangar bay.
Once he was clear of the ship Michael angled the Requiem toward the planet and threw the throttle all the way forward.
"Uunngfhhh...Fyu's balls," Ralthin growled through the comms, "I forgot about that."
"Yinz okay back there," Michael asked, pulling the throttle slightly back.
"Other than bein' crushed inta our seats we're fine," Ralthin said back with a forced chitter.
"Hey, I said it was gonna bumpy ride," Michael said with a smirk.
They made the rest of the trip down in silence and before long they were punching a hole through the atmosphere leaving a flaming trail of plasma behind them. The yacht appeared on the radar when they were still twenty kilometers up, not that Michael needed sensors to find the thing, he could already see it. Floating island was right, the damned thing had to be nearly as big as the Dawn.
When they were about ten kilometers out the comms panel lit up. Out of curiosity, Michael opened the channel.
"Unidentified vessel you are appro-"
Michael closed the channel, his curiosity stated for the moment. No use talking with them anyway. He closed the rest of the distance gradually slowing down so they wouldn't overshoot.
When they got within a kilometer Michael had to admit that the yacht was a truly beautiful ship. It had three hulls connected together by an expansive main deck that swept into a sharp point at the bow where the main hull was cutting through the waves. The most prominent feature being the forest in the middle of the ship protected from the elements by the telltale shimmer of a forcefield.
The landing pad near the stern was suspiciously empty, but when Michael brought the Requiem closer he noticed that it had some kind of door in the middle. No doubt it was used for bringing whatever landed down into some kind of hangar. There was no way the Requiem would fit into said hangar, but it looked like the pad was just large enough to set the ship down. Strangely, the yacht seemed to be holding course, almost inviting him to land.
He activated the inter-ship comms, "Looks like they're actually gonna let us land. The second we touch down I want the brownies out first. Shoot first, ask questions later."
Michael flipped the ship around so she was hovering just above the deck and matched speed with the yacht. He lined it up using the docking camera and set her down with a gentle thump. The very next thing he did was take control of the nose turrets, aiming them at the only door in the aft section of the yacht.
He set the ship in low power mode instead of completely shutting down just in case they needed to make a quick getaway, and watched through the turret camera feed as the brownies stormed out of the ship and took their positions. Sloppy by any kind of military standards, but it didn't seem like there was anyone to greet them.
Michael unstrapped himself and grabbed his coilgun from the rack next to the door. Walking down the ramp was always tricky thanks to the gravity weirdness, but thankfully he didn't stumble when he stepped off into the planet's own gravity.
"No one to meet us," he said, stepping out into the sunlight.
Ralthin glanced back at Michael over his shoulder, "I don't like this at all. Even through this helmet, it smells all kindsa wrong."
Hephaestus came up behind Michael, "Thisss feelsss like a trap."
"Couldn't agree with you more buddy," Michael said, walking forward to the door.
"What'd ya wanna do," Ralthin said following close behind.
Michael glanced at Ralthinand smirked, "Spring the trap."
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How to Improve MySQL AWS Performance 2X Over Amazon RDS at The Same Cost

AWS is the #1 cloud provider for open-source database hosting, and the go-to cloud for MySQL deployments. As organizations continue to migrate to the cloud, it’s important to get in front of performance issues, such as high latency, low throughput, and replication lag with higher distances between your users and cloud infrastructure. While many AWS users default to their managed database solution, Amazon RDS, there are alternatives available that can improve your MySQL performance on AWS through advanced customization options and unlimited EC2 instance type support. ScaleGrid offers a compelling alternative to hosting MySQL on AWS that offers better performance, more control, and no cloud vendor lock-in and the same price as Amazon RDS. In this post, we compare the performance of MySQL Amazon RDS vs. MySQL Hosting at ScaleGrid on AWS High Performance instances.

TLDR

ScaleGrid’s MySQL on AWS High Performance deployment can provide 2x-3x the throughput at half the latency of Amazon RDS for MySQL with their added advantage of having 2 read replicas as compared to 1 in RDS.

MySQL on AWS Performance Test

ScaleGrid Amazon RDS
Instance Type AWS High Performance XLarge (see system details below) DB Instance r4.xlarge(Multi-AZ)
Deployment Type 3 Node Master-Slave Set with Semisynchronous Replication Multi-AZ Deployment with 1 Read Replica
SSD Disk Local SSD & General Purpose – 2TB General Purpose – 2TB
Monthly Cost (USD) $1,798 $1,789
As you can see from the above table, MySQL RDS pricing is within $10 of ScaleGrid’s fully managed MySQL hosting solution.

What are ScaleGrid’s High Performance Replica Sets?

The ScaleGrid MySQL on AWS High Performance replica set uses a hybrid of local SSD and EBS disk to achieve both high performance and high reliability. A typical configuration is deployed using a 3-node replica set:
What does this mean? Since the Master and the Slave-1 are running on local SSD, you get the best possible disk performance from your AWS machines. No more network-based EBS, just blazing-fast local SSD. Reads and writes to your Primary, and even reads from Slave-1 will work at SSD speed. Slave-2 uses an EBS data disk, and you can configure the amount of IOPS required for your cluster. This configuration provides complete safety for your data, even in the event you lose the local SSD disks.
ScaleGrid’s MySQL AWS High Performance XLarge replica set uses i3.xlarge (30.5 GB RAM) instances with local SSD for the Master and Slave-1, and an i3.2xlarge (61 GB RAM) instance for Slave-2.

MySQL Configuration

A similar MySQL configuration is used on both ScaleGrid and RDS deployments:
Configuration Value
version 5.7.25 community edition
innodb_buffer_pool_size 25G
innodb_log_file_size 1G
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit 1
sync_binlog 1
innodb_io_capacity 3000
innodb_io_capacity_max 6000
slave_parallel_workers 30
slave_parallel_type LOGICAL_CLOCK

MySQL Performance Benchmark Configuration

Configuration Details
Tool Sysbench version 1.0.17
Host 1 r4.xlarge located in the same AWS datacenter as the Master MySQL
# Tables 100
# Rows per table 5,000,000
Workload generating script oltp_read_write.lua

MySQL Performance Test Scenarios and Results

To ensure we provide informative results for all MySQL AWS workload types, we have broken down our tests into these three scenarios so you can evaluate based on your read/write workload intensity:
  1. Read-Intensive Workload: 80% Reads and 20% Writes
  2. Balanced Workload: 50% Reads and 50% Writes
  3. Write-Intensive Workload: 20% Reads and 80% Writes
Each scenario is run with varying number of sysbench client threads ranging from 50 to 400, and each test is run for a duration of 10 minutes. We measure throughput in terms of Queries Per Second (QPS) and 95th Percentile latency, and ensure that the max replication lag on the slaves does not cross 30s. For some of the tests on the ScaleGrid deployment, MySQL configuration binlog_group_commit_sync_delay is tuned so that the slave replication lag does not go beyond 30s. This technique is referred to as ‘slowing down the master to speed up the slaves’ and is explained in J-F Gagne’s blog.

Scenario-1: Read-Intensive Workload with 80% Reads and 20% Writes

ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Throughput Performance Test - 80 Percent Read 20 Percent Write
As we can see from the read-intensive workload tests, ScaleGrid high performance MySQL instances on AWS are able to consistently handle around 27,800 QPS anywhere from 50 up to 400 threads. This is almost a 200% increase over MySQL RDS performance which averages only 9,411 QPS across the same range of threads.
ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Latency Performance Test - 80 Percent Read 20 Percent Write
ScaleGrid also maintains 53% lower latency on average throughout the entire MySQL AWS performance tests. Both Amazon RDS and ScaleGrid latency increase steadily as the number of threads grows, where ScaleGrid maxes out at 383ms for 400 threads while Amazon RDS is at 831ms at the same level.

Scenario-2: Balanced Workload with 50% Reads and 50% Writes

ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Throughput Performance Test - 50 Percent Read 50 Percent Write
In our balanced workload performance tests, ScaleGrid’s MySQL High Performance deployment on AWS outperforms again with an average of 20,605 QPS on threads ranging from 50 to 400. Amazon RDS only averaged 8,296 for the same thread count, resulting in a 148% improvement with ScaleGrid.
ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Latency Performance Test - 50 Percent Read 50 Percent Write
Both ScaleGrid and Amazon RDS latency significantly decreased in the balanced workload tests compared to the read-intensive tests covered above. Amazon RDS averaged 258ms latency in the balanced workload tests, where ScaleGrid only averaged 125ms achieving over a 52% reduction in latency over MySQL on Amazon RDS.

Scenario-3: Write-Intensive Workload with 20% Reads and 80% Writes

ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Throughput Performance Test - 20 Percent Read 80 Percent Write
In our final write-intensive MySQL AWS workload scenario, ScaleGrid achieved significantly higher throughput performance with an average of 17,007 QPS over the range of 50 to 400 threads. This is a 123% improvement over Amazon RDS who only achieved 7,638 QPS over the same number of threads.
ScaleGrid vs Amazon RDS: MySQL Latency Performance Test - 20 Percent Read 80 Percent Write
The 95th percentile latency tests also produced significantly lower latency for ScaleGrid at an average of 114ms over 50 to 400 threads. Amazon RDS achieved an average of 247ms in their latency tests, resulting in a 54% average reduction in latency when deploying ScaleGrid’s High Performance MySQL on AWS services over Amazon RDS.

Analysis

As we observed from the test results, read-intensive workloads resulted in both higher throughput and latency over balanced workloads and write-intensive workloads, regardless of how MySQL was deployed on AWS:
MySQL on AWS Throughput Performance Test Averages ScaleGrid Amazon RDS ScaleGrid Improvement
Read-Intensive Throughput 27,795 9,411 195.4%
Balance Workload Throughput 20,605 8,296 148.4%
Write-Intensive Throughput 17,007 7,638 122.7%

MySQL on AWS Latency Performance Test Averages ScaleGrid Amazon RDS ScaleGrid Improvement
Read-Intensive Latency 206ms 439ms -53.0%
Balanced Workload Latency 125ms 258ms -51.6%
Write-Intensive Latency 114ms 247ms -53.8%

Explanation of Results

ScaleGrid ‘High Performance’ deployment can provide 2x-3x the throughput at half the latency of RDS with an added advantage of having 2 read replicas as compared to 1 in RDS. To learn more about ScaleGrid's MySQL hosting advantages over Amazon RDS for MySQL, check out our Compare MySQL Providers page.
submitted by ScaleGrid_DBaaS to mysql [link] [comments]

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When binary logging is enabled on a replica, the combination of the --replicate-same-server-id and --log-slave-updates options on the replica can cause infinite loops in replication if the server is part of a circular replication topology. (In MySQL 8.0, binary logging is enabled by default, and replica update logging is the default when binary logging is enabled.) However, the use of global ... For additional information, see Section 17.1.6.2, “Replication Source Options and Variables”, and Section 17.1.6.3, “Replica Server Options and Variables”. If the server ID is set to 0, binary logging takes place, but a source with a server ID of 0 refuses any connections from replicas, and a replica with a server ID of 0 refuses to connect to a source. I am trying to set a MongoDB replica set. The idea is, having 4 instances in aws: 1 - Nodejs app, a simple webpage, configured to connect to a DB_HOST on port 27017 2 - MongoDB Primary 3 - MongoDB If specified, the cluster will be treated as a replica set and the driver will automatically discover all servers in the set, starting with the nodes specified through ApplyURI or SetHosts. All nodes in the replica set must have the same replica set name, or they will not be considered as part of the set by the Client. This can also be set through the "replicaSet" URI option (e.g. "replicaSet ... Include any other options as appropriate for your deployment. Note. Starting in MongoDB 3.6, if your replica set members are run on different hosts or if you wish remote clients to connect to your instance, you must specify the net.bindIp setting (or --bind_ip). Warning. Before binding to a non-localhost (e.g. publicly accessible) IP address, ensure you have secured your cluster from ... Upgrade secondary members of the replica set.¶ Upgrade the secondary members of the replica set one at a time: Shut down the mongod instance and replace the 4.2 binary with the 4.4 binary. Restart the member. Start each member of the replica set with the appropriate options. For each member, start a mongod instance with the following settings: Set replication.replSetName option to the replica set name, If your application connects to more than one replica set, each set should have a distinct name. Some drivers group replica set connections by replica set name. Set net.bindIp option to the ip or a ... If the net.ipv6 configuration file setting or the --ipv6 command line option is set for the binary, the binary additionally binds to the localhost IPv6 address. Previously, starting from MongoDB 2.6, only the binaries from the official MongoDB RPM (Red Hat, CentOS, Fedora Linux, and derivatives) and DEB (Debian, Ubuntu, and derivatives) packages bind to localhost by default. where: the box.cfg() listen parameter defines a URI (port 3301 in our example), on which the master can accept connections from replicas.. the box.cfg() replication parameter defines the URIs at which all instances in the replica set can accept connections. It includes the replica’s URI as well, although the replica is not a replication source right now When binary logging is enabled on a replica, the combination of the --replicate-same-server-id and --log-slave-updates options on the replica can cause infinite loops in replication if the server is part of a circular replication topology. (In MySQL 8.0, binary logging is enabled by default, and replica update logging is the default when binary logging is enabled.) However, the use of global ...

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